Researchers at the Ohio State University’s ElectroScience Laboratory have been able to use simple (printed on uniform substrates) microwave circuit components to emulate the extraordinary propagation phenomena traditionally encountered in photonic crystals and metamaterials. These materials have been shown to exhibit unique and useful properties for microwave and optics applications such as delay lines, couplers, and antennas. One class of these structures demonstrated significant wave slowdown and amplitude increase within a small region, leading to miniaturization of antennas and other microwave circuit components. Another important property of metamaterials that has attracted significant research interest is the realization of a negative index of refraction. As the latter are difficult and expensive to manufacture, the proposed technology provides a practical approach to realize such unique properties. The researchers have already been able to realize these extraordinary properties using uniquely invented, cost effective, and easy to manufacture microstrip transmission lines arrangements.
Enables easy and inexpensive miniaturization of microwave and optical circuit components such as coupled lines, delay elements, phase shifters, printed antennas, antenna arrays, and solid state semiconductor optoelectronic devices
Enjoys the benefits derived from photonic crystals and metamaterials at a fraction of the cost
Enables a boost in gain while maintaining the same size dimensions
Compared to photonic crystals and metamaterials, this structure is much more cost effective and easier to manufacture, while exhibiting similar properties
Easy to retrofit with existing manufacturing processes and manufacture in volume since it is based on printed circuit technology
The implementation of true time delays (TTD) can be a challenging task in the design of phased array antenna systems. Optical approaches to TTD are usually either of the waveguide (or fiber) or free-space variety. Using optical fibers can be challenging as it is difficult to create precise fiber lengths for short and long time delays, and coupling losses can be substantial. Free-space systems have the advantages of low weight and equal ease of implementing long and short delays, but their disadvantages include difficulties in aligning optical components and large physical size.
Researchers at The Ohio State University have overcome the disadvantages of free-space TTD systems by creating an extremely compact system that is easy to align and has passed temperature and vibration testing with no degradation in signal. The demonstrated system is capable of supporting 112 antennas with 81 different delays in a volume 16"x5"x4" including the box with electronics. Pointing accuracy is extremely high, and delays can be implemented from 0 to 25ns in 312.5ps increments. Total insertion loss is very low.
To our knowledge, this optical implementation of RF true time delay represents the most hardware compressive and lowest loss approach ever demonstrated.
Phased Array Radar Systems
Photonic Switching Systems
Optical Signal Processing
Fast and simple alignment
Avoids beam squint
Easy to implement both long and short time delays
Most hardware compressive and lowest loss true time delay approach ever demonstrated
There is great commercial interest for antennas that can operate over large frequency bands. This is especially true for electrically small antennas (small in terms of wavelength). Designing effective, wide bandwidth, electrically small antennas is one of the most challenging problems in antenna engineering. Researchers at the Ohio State University have invented a method for appropriately loading the antenna at various locations along the structure with reactive elements (capacitors and inductors) which can have negative values (non-Foster elements) and can greatly increase the bandwidth of the antenna by controlling its currents. This concept is more general than previously reported methods based on the design of matching networks, which are based on the current and voltage behavior at the antenna terminals only. In contrast, this invention deals with currents throughout the entire antenna structure and results in an antenna with a simple and small form factor, ideal for miniature or portable electronics that require a small footprint.
In microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microelectronic fabrication techniques have led to mostly planar parts having dimensions in the vertical direction of only a few micrometers. Multi-scale 3-D devices, whose components range in size from several millimeters down to nanometers, are believed by many researchers and practitioners to potentially have a much greater range of applications than MEMS in a wide range of industries including medicine, communications, defense, aerospace, and consumer products. Metrology, manipulation, and testing of these devices have proven to be a significant barrier to their further development. To overcome this barrier, researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a visual sensing method and system that provides the full pose of multiple 3-D micro objects with under 10 nanometer precision in x-y-z. Furthermore, the system can automatically perform positioning and alignment of micro objects in real time using measurements derived from a single image, so that no scanning is necessary to obtain ‘out-of-plane’ motion parameters. Applications include dynamic alignment of micro parts, assembly of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components, and assembly of micro sensors, among others.
Micro-assembly and manipulation station developers
Sensor and measurement system manufacturers
R&D workstation developers
Provides the full pose of multiple 3-D objects with under 10nm precision in x-y-z
The six-degree-of-freedom motion of each micro object is measured from a single image so that no scanning is necessary to obtain ‘out-of-plane’ motion parameters
Allows automatic real-time positioning and alignment of micro-objects
Can serve as a compact motion sensor and can be employed to achieve direct metrology and direct visual servo control in the object space with nanometer resolution
In applications such as scanning probe microscopy (e.g. AFM), nano-metrology, and micro/nano manipulation, traditional nano-probes are limited in that their tips have a fixed orientation. As a result, they are useful primarily for near-planar samples. Complex geometrical features or features with large changes in topography can either not be imaged at all or are imaged at greatly reduced lateral resolution with increased artifacts. Researchers at the Ohio State University have developed a novel multi-axis nano-probe that enables high-resolution imaging of 3-D surfaces on arbitrarily complex geometric features and nano-manipulation of 3-D samples. For these applications, the probe enables fast and precise co-located control of tip orientation by several tens of degrees and multi-axis control of probe-sample interaction forces. Together, they allow for controlled 3-D manipulation of soft, sensitive specimens and imaging samples with complex geometry (like re-entrant features and steep side-walls).
AFM equipment manufacturers
Nanometrology instrument manufacturers
Nanomanipulation system manufacturers
Enables control of probe-orientation along two independent axes by several tens of degrees while retaining the probe-stiffness along the Z-axis
Compact, high-bandwidth, high-gain actuation for fast, large-angle tip-positioning
Enables the measurement of tip orientation angles that are possibly over a hundred times larger than the measurement range of the optical detectors used in scanning probe microscopy while retaining the high resolution of the detectors
Enables multi-axis co-located control of probe-sample interaction forces
Enables real-time tracking of surface orientation by the probe-tip during 3-D imaging of sample surfaces
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) present a host of environmental and health problems, including acid rain, urban smog, acidification of lakes and streams, and damage of forest soils. The major source of NOx is from the combustion of fossil fuels, and NOx sensors are employed in the development of internal combustion engines in order to optimize combustion and minimize emissions. Nitric Oxide is also an important biological molecule and its level in human breath is also an indication of many diseased states, including asthma.
Resistance-based electrochemical NOx sensors, while exhibiting good sensitivity, often react to many different gases, and selectivity suffers. Potentiometric sensors offer a promising approach for NOx measurements in harsh environments, but often suffer from interference with other gases.
Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a novel potentiometric NOx sensor that overcomes the interference limitations of previous potentiometric sensors. This sensor is extremely selective to NOx in the presence of other gas species, and sensitivities have been confirmed in the parts-per-billion range! The sensor is ideal for incredibly precise NOx measurements in environments as diverse as engines and for breath monitoring.
Environmental NOx monitoring
Ridiculously high sensitivity (ppb range!)
Will withstand extreme environments
Cost effective as potentiometric output does not require sophisticated support electronics
The ability to trap, manipulate, and transport individual micro or nano-scale particles is an invaluable tool for the study of cells, viruses, DNA, proteins, and other biomolecules. Ohio State researchers have developed a two-dimensional magnetic array platform, using discrete micron-scale magnetic elements, that enables joystick or remote manipulation of individual or multiple cells trapped on the array. This invention can function as a “magnetic tweezer” and is an improvement over existing configurations, where dynamic refocusing or out-of-focus calibration is needed when observing the tweezers with an optical microscope. Furthermore, particles can be probed and studied using directed forces. Easy manufacturing using standard techniques would enable the set-up and simultaneous measurement of thousands of identical samples in order to acquire statistically valid real time responses. The invention can also be incorporated into microfluidic analytical devices to create a new family of on-chip analytic tools to detect small concentrations of one species in the midst of other species.
Easy and inexpensive to manufacture using standard techniques
Can be observed through an optical microscope
Can use as magnetic tweezers to provide excellent control for holding and manipulating a molecule or cell
Since the early 1960’s, the utility of the tunnel diode (or Esaki diode) has been evident, but several practical hurdles have kept it from reaching mainstream status. Historically, it has been difficult to control peak current and, more importantly, tunnel diode fabrication has lacked a Si-based process that can easily be mass produced and integrated into existing Si-based integrated circuits. As a result, today’s tunnel diodes are primarily used in discrete form and for niche applications. Regardless, tunnel diodes have many current and future applications, and the challenges of aggressively scaled CMOS is forcing this subject to be seriously revisited, since quantum tunneling will dominate in any ultra-low dimensional material. The structure of the Resonant Interband Tunneling Diode (RITD) differs from that of the Esaki diode (traditional tunnel diode) which results in additional useful properties. In RITDs, electrons quantum mechanically tunnel across an energy well formed between two barriers, where Esaki diodes have no energy well. This quantum mechanical tunneling effect happens extremely quickly and thus very high speed electronics can be realized with the use of RITDs. Terahertz operation has been demonstrated. Furthermore, a useful effect called Negative Differential Resistance (NDR) can be exploited using these devices.
Can augment CMOS technology resulting in novel logic and embedded circuit topologies with reduced device count, low power, and faster speed.
Can be implemented in ICs, memory devices, and small, lightweight portable electronics for greater performance at lower power consumption
Applications found in oscillators, frequency locking circuits, advanced SRAM circuits, highly integrated A/D converters, high speed digital latches, and many others
Uses quantum tunneling, a very high-speed process. Terahertz operation has been demonstrated
Shown to exhibit Negative Differential Resistance (NDR)
Low cost, compatible with current CMOS technology, and easy to integrate into existing manufacturing processes
Runs at room temperature and at very low voltage
Can be combined with existing technologies to offer flexibility
Tunneling Diode: Use and Manufacturing – US Pending Using Backward Tunneling Diode as a Sensor – US Pending
SnO2-based CO sensors are widely used in domestic and industrial applications and belong to the class of metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. This class of sensor is easy to manufacture and miniaturize, and sensitivity and selectivity are both tunable. Also, electrochemical measurements are easily realized, require simple electronics, and integration into electronic devices is straightforward. However, since sufficient oxygen vacancies are needed for conduction, MOS sensors typically operate at elevated temperatures, which requires energy consumption and reduces sensor lifetimes. Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a MOS CO sensor based on Au/SnO2 core-shell nanoparticles that is operable in the 25 to 150 deg. C range. Sensor response is highly reproducible and recovery is fast in this temperature range, and high sensitivity was exhibited.
Home, office, and industrial CO monitoring for occupant and fire safety
Low temperature and low power requirement makes it compatible with mobile devices
A MOS electrochemical CO sensor that operates in the 25 to 150 deg. C range!
Increased safety and sensor longevity as no heating device is needed
Video is a data-rich medium that results in the creation of large data sets requiring large memory spaces and wide bandwidth to transmit. At The Ohio State University, we have created a dynamically grouped, 3D wavelet technology which significantly reduces the bit-rate for transmitting or storing audio, video and image signals, and out-performs existing technologies in terms of compression efficiency, image quality and scope of applications. Demonstration software is available.
Streaming internet or wireless video and audio transmission
Mobile phone video
Video on demand
Digital video surveillance
Video databases and archiving
Digital video editing
Higher compression ratios than other techniques (e.g. discrete cosine transform based MPEG), while maintaining superior image quality
Adaptive grouping 3D system for enhanced compression ratios
Separate object and background compression
Packed-integer implementation of wavelet transform for high-speed computation
Software only solution
Amenable to VLSI or DSP hardware implementations
Suitable for handheld devices, since integer based computation allows for low power IC use
Flexible algorithm facilitates tuning to available computational resources