Economically viable removal of CO2 from sources such as coal plant flue gas and gasification mixtures requires affordable separation membranes that have high selectivity combined with high flux. State of the art membranes do not meet these requirements. Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a new ultrathin inorganic membrane that exhibits high selectivity and a potentially high permeance for the separation of CO2 with respect to other gases. The membrane exhibits long-term stability, and operations over a wide range of temperatures.
Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a technique for single sensor differential thermal analysis (SS-DTA) that determines the solid-liquid and solid-state phase transformations during the actual processing of metals and alloys. The SS-DTA technique is based on single sensor temperature measurement and computerized acquisition of the thermal history in particular locations of the processed metal. The heat of reaction and temperatures of the phase transformation are measured by software that processes the thermal data. This new technique was verified by direct comparison to the classic differential thermal analysis (DTA) as well as dilatometry. It has been successfully applied for in-situ determining the solidification ranges and solid-state phase transformation temperatures in welded joints of various alloy steels, non-ferrous alloys and Ni-base superalloys, and for development of continuous cooling transformation diagrams. In addition, phase transformation behavior during weldability testing, post-weld heat treatment, and casting has also been measured. It has been successfully applied with a thermo-mechanical simulator. The SS-DTA technique is performed utilizing a device for the investigation of phase transformations (DIPT) that was also developed by The Ohio State University.
Development of new alloys and welding consumables.
Investigation of microstructure evolution under actual processing conditions of thermal and thermo-mechanical processing.
Study of microstructure-property relationships and material fabricability.
Development and testing of procedures for thermal and thermo-mechanical processing of metals and alloys.
Applicable at non-equilibrium heating and cooling rates and in actual processing conditions.
Applicable and highly sensitive to the entire range of solid-liquid and solid-state phase transformations in metal and alloys and to the magnetic transformation (in ferrous alloys).
Fast, simple and cost-effective; Applicable as a more sensitive and accurate alternative or back up to dilatometry in simulation equipment.
Potential for measuring precipitation and recrystallization reactions and for quantifying the volume fraction of formed phases.
Scientists at OSU have developed a method to detect the presence or absence of density gradients in sand molds. This method uses elements that are readily available in the typical production environment and does not add significantly to total production costs. This detection method is able to identify density gradients, allowing for early rejection of out-of-spec molds. Further, the detecting chemical is added in such low concentrations that there is no detectable change the physical properties of the sand mold.
Existing CO sensors are usually of either the electrochemical or optical variety. Inexpensive optical sensors, usually battery powered, are limited in their precision and lack displays to determine exact levels of CO concentration. Electrochemical devices offer higher precision and offer a display for CO concentration, but must operate at elevated temperatures and thus must be plugged in to a wall outlet. Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed an electrochemical CO sensor that operates and senses CO at room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a heating device. Therefore, energy demands are far lower when plugged in to a wall outlet, and a battery-powered electrochemical CO sensor can be achieved. This sensor can monitor CO in the ppm range and can be readily fabricated by screen printing techniques with deposition on polymer substrates. Sensors are miniaturizable.
Home, office, and industrial CO monitoring for occupant safety and fire detection
CO sensors can be incorporated into mobile devices, such as cell phones
Increased safety and sensor longevity as no heating device is needed
For the first time, battery-powered electrochemical CO sensors are possible
A portable, battery-powered CO sensor with a display becomes possible
Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a device for investigating phase transformations (DIPT) in metals and alloys that is capable of reproducing, over laboratory scale specimens, the actual thermal histories of liquid, solid-liquid and solid-state processing. The thermal simulation devices currently available are not capable of studying the solid-liquid phase transformations and have limited usefulness for studying the non-equilibrium solid-state phase transformations that occur during thermal and thermo-mechanical processing. This has resulted in a lack of practically applicable phase transformation data for the modern structural alloys. The DIPT, however, has a broad field of application in the investigation of the melting and solidification phenomena and the solid-state phase transformations in metals and alloys under simulated processing conditions and in some fabricability tests. It provides a powerful tool for the development of alloys, consumables and filler metals for a wide range of processing applications such as welding, surfacing, hardfacing, brazing, soldering, surface melting, casting, etc. The DIPT simulates processing with complete or partial melting, or without melting, and determines the solid-liquid and solid-state phase transformation temperatures by single sensor differential thermal analysis (SS-DTA). SS-DTA is a novel technique that is based on single sensor temperature measurement and computerized acquisition of the thermal history. The phase transformation temperatures are measured by software processing of the thermal data. The DIPT has been successfully applied for measurement of solidification ranges, formation of eutectic phases, and solid state phase transformations in various steels and Ni-base super alloys.
Materials producers and processing companies as well as research and educational institutions
Reproduces the actual thermal histories of liquid, solid-liquid and solid-state processing over laboratory scale specimens.
Determines the solid-liquid and solid state phase transformation temperatures under a wide range of simulated processing conditions.
Provides a fast and economical tool for alloy development and a competitive alternative to the available simulation equipment.
Utilizes the highly sensitive and versatile single sensor differential thermal analysis (SS DTA).
Spin trap development has been one of the major areas of interest in free radical research and is of great importance for the identification of free radicals in chemical and biological systems. Spin trapping by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been widely employed to detect radical adducts with high sensitivity. However, commercially available spin traps are limited by slow reactivity to superoxide radical anion and short half-life of the superoxide adduct formed. Moreover, spin traps have the ability to sequester highly reactive and damaging radical species known as free radicals thereby making them potential antioxidants.
Ohio State University researchers have developed 5-carbamoyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (AMPO) and its derivatives, which help to improve on these limitations in one molecular design for improved radical detection and therapeutic applications.
Suitable for the detection of free radicals in aqueous systems for chemical, biological, and biomedical research using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Important tool in treating a variety of conditions, such as: inflammatory and degenerative age-related diseases, AIDS, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Potential antioxidant in the prevention of oxidation of common household and personal care products.
Ability to trap different types of free radicals and exhibit characteristic EPR spectra for each.
Possesses the fastest rate for trapping the superoxide radical anion.
Easily purified as solid compound without giving paramagnetic impurities based on its EPR spectrum.
Carbon dioxide sensors are becoming increasingly important in many applications including monitoring air quality, CO2 sequestration, measuring metabolic activity in animals, and controlling combustion. While commercial sensors for such applications exist, there is nothing currently on the market designed for reliability and effectiveness in high temperature and high humidity environments. Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a reliable, high-performance carbon dioxide electrochemical sensor that works across a wide range of temperatures, is insensitive to humidity, and detects CO2 across a wide range of concentrations. These sensors can be manufactured by thin and thick film processing techniques, and can therefore be miniaturized resulting in a sensor with milliwatt power requirements for operation.
Monitoring of metabolic activity
CO2 monitoring in harsh environments
Power plant and industrial emissions monitoring
Automotive and aerospace emissions monitoring
CO2 sequestration applications
Fast response and recovery
Long-term sensor stability in humid conditions over a wide range of temperature
Refractory ceramics can exhibit several enhanced properties relative to refractory metals and alloys, such as corrosion resistance, high temperature stability in oxidizing atmospheres, specific strength and stiffness, creep resistance, and wear resistance. However, the brittleness of ceramic bodies renders the fabrication of shaped components tedious and expensive. Such brittleness also necessitates the use of reinforcements to enhance damage tolerance. The present invention describes a new reaction-based method for fabricating shaped, reinforced ceramic bodies that involves a minimum number of low-cost processing steps: the Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP) process.
Manufacturing of materials that retain their strength at high temperatures.
Low cost Smaller number of steps to manufacture refractory ceramics; easier to manufacture.
While indazoles have shown anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-HIV properties, their systhesis usually use exotic and expensive starting materials, harsh conditions, and metal-based reactions. Ohio State researchers have designed a synthesis to make indazoles under mild conditions using common inexpensive starting material in a metal-free reactions. These methods involve the use of readily available aromatic carbonyl compounds that are first reacted with a nitrogen source, followed by the addition of sulfonylchloride compounds in the presence of a weak base to form 1H-indazoles.
The need of carbon clusters, mainly multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes as well as fullerenes, has be increasing exponentially over the past decade as such materials are finding their way out of the research lab and into commercial products. These fascinating materials have received a great deal of interest because of their useful properties such as extreme hardness, low density, and variable conductivity. Particularly, single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have many unique and potentially useful physical and chemical properties. Conventional process techniques generally used for the creation of these CNTs require production temperatures around 1000 Celsius thereby resulting in large energy consumption. These high temperatures also preclude the synthesis of complex carbon structures (including ones containing metal catalysts) as such structures would be unstable and would dissociate at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, conventional production methods result in isotope 12C-enriched CNTs and not the more enticing 13C and 14C isotopes. As a reaction to this demand for low temperature, low energy consumption carbon clusters that are 13C- and 14C-enriched, researchers at The Ohio State University have patented a novel technique for CNT production at or below 100 Celsius which also leads to the formation of more advanced CNT materials with a highly aligned structure.
Field emission devices
Energy storage (fuel cells and batteries)
Sporting equipment, body armor and consumer clothing
Allows for the efficient production of 12C-enriched single-walled CNTs, multi-walled CNTs and fullerenes as well as carbon clusters significantly enriched in heavy carbon isotopes (13C, 14C)
Minimizes energy consumption by requiring process temperatures of 100 Celsius instead of the conventional processes that require 1000 Celsius
Allows for the synthesis of complex carbon structures (including ones containing metal catalysts) at temperatures where these products remain stable
Production levels comparable to conventional high temperature processes