Spin trap development has been one of the major areas of interest in free radical research and is of great importance for the identification of free radicals in chemical and biological systems. Spin trapping by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been widely employed to detect radical adducts with high sensitivity. However, commercially available spin traps are limited by slow reactivity to superoxide radical anion and short half-life of the superoxide adduct formed. Moreover, spin traps have the ability to sequester highly reactive and damaging radical species known as free radicals thereby making them potential antioxidants.
Ohio State University researchers have developed 5-carbamoyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (AMPO) and its derivatives, which help to improve on these limitations in one molecular design for improved radical detection and therapeutic applications.
Suitable for the detection of free radicals in aqueous systems for chemical, biological, and biomedical research using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Important tool in treating a variety of conditions, such as: inflammatory and degenerative age-related diseases, AIDS, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Potential antioxidant in the prevention of oxidation of common household and personal care products.
Ability to trap different types of free radicals and exhibit characteristic EPR spectra for each.
Possesses the fastest rate for trapping the superoxide radical anion.
Easily purified as solid compound without giving paramagnetic impurities based on its EPR spectrum.
Devices that exhibit a phenomenon known as negative differential resistance (NDR) have tremendous potential to deliver the kind of low-power circuitry needed in a variety of electronics applications. To understand NDR, it is instructive to recall Ohm’s Law, V=IR. For a fixed resistance (R), as voltage (V) increases, current (I) increases in a linear fashion. In NDR, there is a voltage range where increasing voltage actually results in a decreasing current. This behavior has many beneficial design properties, one of which is the design of low power memory and logic or even energy scavenging from the environment, eliminating the need for a self-contained battery. Until now, successful demonstrations of NDR have been limited to rigid, inflexible semiconductor-based devices that are unsuitable for certain applications. Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a polymer-based device that exhibits NDR and has the flexibility needed for advanced applications such as smartcards and wearable electronics. These devices enjoy very fast operation, which leads to high performance while consuming very little power. Furthermore, these devices can be manufactured in a very cost-effective manner using simple printing techniques.
Development of advanced logic and memory circuits on flexible substrates
Large and reproducible NDR, at room temperature, in a flexible polymer device!
Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a technique for single sensor differential thermal analysis (SS-DTA) that determines the solid-liquid and solid-state phase transformations during the actual processing of metals and alloys. The SS-DTA technique is based on single sensor temperature measurement and computerized acquisition of the thermal history in particular locations of the processed metal. The heat of reaction and temperatures of the phase transformation are measured by software that processes the thermal data. This new technique was verified by direct comparison to the classic differential thermal analysis (DTA) as well as dilatometry. It has been successfully applied for in-situ determining the solidification ranges and solid-state phase transformation temperatures in welded joints of various alloy steels, non-ferrous alloys and Ni-base superalloys, and for development of continuous cooling transformation diagrams. In addition, phase transformation behavior during weldability testing, post-weld heat treatment, and casting has also been measured. It has been successfully applied with a thermo-mechanical simulator. The SS-DTA technique is performed utilizing a device for the investigation of phase transformations (DIPT) that was also developed by The Ohio State University.
Development of new alloys and welding consumables.
Investigation of microstructure evolution under actual processing conditions of thermal and thermo-mechanical processing.
Study of microstructure-property relationships and material fabricability.
Development and testing of procedures for thermal and thermo-mechanical processing of metals and alloys.
Applicable at non-equilibrium heating and cooling rates and in actual processing conditions.
Applicable and highly sensitive to the entire range of solid-liquid and solid-state phase transformations in metal and alloys and to the magnetic transformation (in ferrous alloys).
Fast, simple and cost-effective; Applicable as a more sensitive and accurate alternative or back up to dilatometry in simulation equipment.
Potential for measuring precipitation and recrystallization reactions and for quantifying the volume fraction of formed phases.
In the design of structures, systems have been developed to achieve optimization through the use of algorithms. However, algorithms of the prior art often fail in terms of convergence and stability, particularly for large nonlinear engineering systems. For instance, existing Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software systems have rudimentary optimization capabilities and can hardly handle large nonlinear systems. Another problem with prior art systems is that the data models employed do not take advantage of computing resources available today. Optimization of large structures with thousands of members subjected to actual constraints of commonly-used design codes requires an inordinate amount of computer processing and can be done only on multiprocessor supercomputers.
Researchers at the Ohio State University have discovered a superior system for design optimization of highrise and superhighrise buildings with more than 20,000 members subjected to actual nonlinear constraints of commonly used design codes. Employing this invention can yield substantial weight savings in the design of large structures with millions of dollars of cost savings. This invention can also serve as a stepping stone in further improvement of CAD software.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have unlimited proliferation potential and can differentiate into many types of tissue. However, conventional cell culture methods for production of ES cells are labor-intensive, expensive and cannot meet their projected high-market demand. Researchers at The Ohio State University have created an economical apparatus and method for the mass production of ES cells utilizing a continuous perfusion co-culture fibrous bed bioreactor containing relatively inexpensive conditioned media. The conditioned medium, without using expensive growth factors such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), was able to expand the ES cells by about 200-fold in 15 days while maintaining the ES cells in the most potent undifferentiated state. This patent pending bioreactor system can also be used to mass produce differentiated ES cells in a specific lineage.
Markets of interest include all commercial and research activities where production and differentiation of embryonic stem cells occur. The main application for stem cell use is in drug discovery with tissue engineering being an additional application.
Continuous perfusion co-culture fibrous bed bioreactor containing relatively inexpensive conditioned media results in:
Researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a comprehensive portfolio of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technologies that include novel materials and device architectures as platforms for functional devices and for device manufacturing. These developments improve material stability over time while improving their performance such that the required voltage can be reduced and improved electroluminescence can be obtained with reduced power consumption. The bilayer device structure improves device quantum efficiency and brightness due to charge confinement and exciplex emission at the emitting polymer interface. Beyond advancements in the materials themselves, novel device architectures have been developed which are independent of the materials used. These advancements may be of significant value in simplifying manufacturing, thereby accelerating the displacement of LCD and plasma display technologies as well as the displacement of traditional incandescent and fluorescent lighting sources. The associated patent portfolio consists of 8 patent families with a total of 11 issued U.S. patents and 39 associated national stage filings (spanning all US cases). A listing of all issued U.S. patents can be found below.
Conformal, designable, and color-variable interior and exterior lighting for residential and commercial environments
Power and weight sensitive lighting and display applications (e.g. aircraft interior lighting, portable display backlighting)
Portable lighting devices such as flashlights
Light, ultra-thin, flexible displays with rich colors viewable from very wide angles
Body-wearable lighting and display applications
Nearly endless list of potential applications
More energy efficient lighting source compared to incandescent and fluorescent approaches
Color quality matches or surpasses conventional approaches in lighting and display applications
Estimated useful life is approximately 17-25 times longer than incandescent lighting and nearly twice as long as linear flourescent lighting (which is commonly used in modern LCD displays)
Polymeric material is conformal to a wide range of surface topologies and allows for ultra-thin, flexible displays
Low cost, materials-independent architectures have the potential to lower manufacturing costs
Micrometer-sized polymeric particles such as spheres, beads, and capsules are widely used for drug delivery, biological analysis, and clinical diagnosis. However, their applications are significantly limited by their spherical shape and the simple structures of the micro-particles produced by conventional methods. Researchers at The Ohio State University have invented a method that can produce polymeric micro-particles with novel three-dimensional structures through self-folding of thin-film micro-particles. This invention applies to different polymers and self-folding mechanisms, and can be used to create novel medical micro-devices.
There is great interest in developing new solid state semiconductor-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) that exhibit new functionality and performance. Principal challenges in creating new semiconductor LED structures include the formation of defects and low doping efficiency, both of which negatively affect device performance. To overcome these challenges, researchers at The Ohio State University have developed new methods and device structures that lead to defect-free, high-efficiency nanowire LEDs. These LEDs can be easily mass manufactured and integrated in silicon electronics, and can hit any bandgap due to the lack of strain relaxation.
Defect-free formation during epitaxial growth
Enables simple and broad bandgap engineering
Low manufacturing costs and easy integration into Si electronics
Researchers at the Ohio State University have developed a virtually undetectable ultra wide band radar system that transmits pseudo random noise. On receive, the radar system cross-correlates a copy (possibly modified) of the original waveform with the receive signals. If a target reflects the signal (with modifications) then the radar will detect the reflection, the time delay, and Doppler. Thus the radar can tell the distance to a reflecting object and its relative speed. This is done using a waveform that will not interfere with other users of the spectrum. The noise waveform is extremely hard to detect. Researchers have further developed a system of storing the waveforms and performing the cross correlation at a particular time delay using a single memory device and no delay devices. This lends to the creation of a small, low cost, low power, stealthy radar that cannot be easily detected by conventional radar detection equipment and can be used for very short range applications. The radar can also be used to identify radar targets by using a pair of waveforms matched to the target radar impulse response. Thus the radar can also be used to detect only specific types of targets, as maybe required by the application.
Speed radar gun manufacturers seeking an undetectable radar gun
Simple moving vehicle/person/object with identification potential (automotive lane change warning)
Highway management to evaluate strength of material, or helicopter air to air warning systems
Low cost ground penetration radar for pipes, land mine detection, or probing human bodies
Low cost building penetration radar (security systems at casinos and airports)